Public Interface

AbstractFFTs.fftFunction
fft(A [, dims])

Performs a multidimensional FFT of the array A. The optional dims argument specifies an iterable subset of dimensions (e.g. an integer, range, tuple, or array) to transform along. Most efficient if the size of A along the transformed dimensions is a product of small primes; see Base.nextprod. See also plan_fft() for even greater efficiency.

A one-dimensional FFT computes the one-dimensional discrete Fourier transform (DFT) as defined by

\[\operatorname{DFT}(A)[k] = \sum_{n=1}^{\operatorname{length}(A)} \exp\left(-i\frac{2\pi (n-1)(k-1)}{\operatorname{length}(A)} \right) A[n].\]

A multidimensional FFT simply performs this operation along each transformed dimension of A.

Note

This performs a multidimensional FFT by default. FFT libraries in other languages such as Python and Octave perform a one-dimensional FFT along the first non-singleton dimension of the array. This is worth noting while performing comparisons.

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AbstractFFTs.fft!Function
fft!(A [, dims])

Same as fft, but operates in-place on A, which must be an array of complex floating-point numbers.

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AbstractFFTs.ifftFunction
ifft(A [, dims])

Multidimensional inverse FFT.

A one-dimensional inverse FFT computes

\[\operatorname{IDFT}(A)[k] = \frac{1}{\operatorname{length}(A)} \sum_{n=1}^{\operatorname{length}(A)} \exp\left(+i\frac{2\pi (n-1)(k-1)} {\operatorname{length}(A)} \right) A[n].\]

A multidimensional inverse FFT simply performs this operation along each transformed dimension of A.

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AbstractFFTs.bfftFunction
bfft(A [, dims])

Similar to ifft, but computes an unnormalized inverse (backward) transform, which must be divided by the product of the sizes of the transformed dimensions in order to obtain the inverse. (This is slightly more efficient than ifft because it omits a scaling step, which in some applications can be combined with other computational steps elsewhere.)

\[\operatorname{BDFT}(A)[k] = \operatorname{length}(A) \operatorname{IDFT}(A)[k]\]

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AbstractFFTs.plan_fftFunction
plan_fft(A [, dims]; flags=FFTW.ESTIMATE, timelimit=Inf)

Pre-plan an optimized FFT along given dimensions (dims) of arrays matching the shape and type of A. (The first two arguments have the same meaning as for fft.) Returns an object P which represents the linear operator computed by the FFT, and which contains all of the information needed to compute fft(A, dims) quickly.

To apply P to an array A, use P * A; in general, the syntax for applying plans is much like that of matrices. (A plan can only be applied to arrays of the same size as the A for which the plan was created.) You can also apply a plan with a preallocated output array  by calling mul!(Â, plan, A). (For mul!, however, the input array A must be a complex floating-point array like the output Â.) You can compute the inverse-transform plan by inv(P) and apply the inverse plan with P \  (the inverse plan is cached and reused for subsequent calls to inv or \), and apply the inverse plan to a pre-allocated output array A with ldiv!(A, P, Â).

The flags argument is a bitwise-or of FFTW planner flags, defaulting to FFTW.ESTIMATE. e.g. passing FFTW.MEASURE or FFTW.PATIENT will instead spend several seconds (or more) benchmarking different possible FFT algorithms and picking the fastest one; see the FFTW manual for more information on planner flags. The optional timelimit argument specifies a rough upper bound on the allowed planning time, in seconds. Passing FFTW.MEASURE or FFTW.PATIENT may cause the input array A to be overwritten with zeros during plan creation.

plan_fft! is the same as plan_fft but creates a plan that operates in-place on its argument (which must be an array of complex floating-point numbers). plan_ifft and so on are similar but produce plans that perform the equivalent of the inverse transforms ifft and so on.

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AbstractFFTs.rfftFunction
rfft(A [, dims])

Multidimensional FFT of a real array A, exploiting the fact that the transform has conjugate symmetry in order to save roughly half the computational time and storage costs compared with fft. If A has size (n_1, ..., n_d), the result has size (div(n_1,2)+1, ..., n_d).

The optional dims argument specifies an iterable subset of one or more dimensions of A to transform, similar to fft. Instead of (roughly) halving the first dimension of A in the result, the dims[1] dimension is (roughly) halved in the same way.

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AbstractFFTs.irfftFunction
irfft(A, d [, dims])

Inverse of rfft: for a complex array A, gives the corresponding real array whose FFT yields A in the first half. As for rfft, dims is an optional subset of dimensions to transform, defaulting to 1:ndims(A).

d is the length of the transformed real array along the dims[1] dimension, which must satisfy div(d,2)+1 == size(A,dims[1]). (This parameter cannot be inferred from size(A) since both 2*size(A,dims[1])-2 as well as 2*size(A,dims[1])-1 are valid sizes for the transformed real array.)

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AbstractFFTs.brfftFunction
brfft(A, d [, dims])

Similar to irfft but computes an unnormalized inverse transform (similar to bfft), which must be divided by the product of the sizes of the transformed dimensions (of the real output array) in order to obtain the inverse transform.

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AbstractFFTs.plan_rfftFunction
plan_rfft(A [, dims]; flags=FFTW.ESTIMATE, timelimit=Inf)

Pre-plan an optimized real-input FFT, similar to plan_fft except for rfft instead of fft. The first two arguments, and the size of the transformed result, are the same as for rfft.

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AbstractFFTs.plan_brfftFunction
plan_brfft(A, d [, dims]; flags=FFTW.ESTIMATE, timelimit=Inf)

Pre-plan an optimized real-input unnormalized transform, similar to plan_rfft except for brfft instead of rfft. The first two arguments and the size of the transformed result, are the same as for brfft.

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AbstractFFTs.plan_irfftFunction
plan_irfft(A, d [, dims]; flags=FFTW.ESTIMATE, timelimit=Inf)

Pre-plan an optimized inverse real-input FFT, similar to plan_rfft except for irfft and brfft, respectively. The first three arguments have the same meaning as for irfft.

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AbstractFFTs.fftdimsFunction
fftdims(p::Plan)

Return an iterable of the dimensions that are transformed by the FFT plan p.

Implementation

For legacy reasons, the default definition of fftdims returns p.region. Hence this method should be implemented only for Plan subtypes that do not store the transformed dimensions in a field named region.

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AbstractFFTs.fftshiftFunction
fftshift(x, [dim])

Circular-shift along the given dimension of a periodic signal x centered at index 1 so it becomes centered at index N÷2+1, where N is the size of that dimension.

This can be undone with ifftshift. For even N this is equivalent to swapping the first and second halves, so fftshift and ifftshift are the same.

If dim is not given then the signal is shifted along each dimension.

The output of fftshift is allocated. If one desires to store the output in a preallocated array, use fftshift! instead.

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AbstractFFTs.ifftshiftFunction
ifftshift(x, [dim])

Circular-shift along the given dimension of a periodic signal x centered at index N÷2+1 so it becomes centered at index 1, where N is the size of that dimension.

This undoes the effect of fftshift. For even N this is equivalent to swapping the first and second halves, so fftshift and ifftshift are the same.

If dim is not given then the signal is shifted along each dimension.

The output of ifftshift is allocated. If one desires to store the output in a preallocated array, use ifftshift! instead.

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AbstractFFTs.fftfreqFunction
fftfreq(n, fs=1)

Return the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) sample frequencies for a DFT of length n. The returned Frequencies object is an AbstractVector containing the frequency bin centers at every sample point. fs is the sampling rate of the input signal, which is the reciprocal of the sample spacing.

Given a window of length n and a sampling rate fs, the frequencies returned are

[0:n÷2-1; -n÷2:-1]  * fs/n   # if n is even
[0:(n-1)÷2; -(n-1)÷2:-1]  * fs/n  # if n is odd

Examples

julia> fftfreq(4, 1)
4-element Frequencies{Float64}:
  0.0
  0.25
 -0.5
 -0.25

julia> fftfreq(5, 2)
5-element Frequencies{Float64}:
  0.0
  0.4
  0.8
 -0.8
 -0.4
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AbstractFFTs.rfftfreqFunction
rfftfreq(n, fs=1)

Return the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) sample frequencies for a real DFT of length n. The returned Frequencies object is an AbstractVector containing the frequency bin centers at every sample point. fs is the sampling rate of the input signal, which is the reciprocal of the sample spacing.

Given a window of length n and a sampling rate fs, the frequencies returned are

[0:n÷2;]  * fs/n  # if n is even
[0:(n-1)÷2;]  * fs/n  # if n is odd
Note

The Nyquist-frequency component is considered to be positive, unlike fftfreq.

Examples

julia> rfftfreq(4, 1)
3-element Frequencies{Float64}:
 0.0
 0.25
 0.5

julia> rfftfreq(5, 2)
3-element Frequencies{Float64}:
 0.0
 0.4
 0.8
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